Chip removal is the removal of all excess material in a blank, to obtain a product ready to be used in a manufacturing process. Chip removal tears off or cuts the material from a piece with a tool, generating this excess material that is separated from the piece with the tool itself.

There are different types of precision machining by chip removal, which we can differentiate into three large groups:

Roughing; The removal of a lot of material in an imprecise way, to carry out an intermediate process that is used to get closer to the final dimensions of the piece, in a short period of time. It requires a high speed of advance and also of cutting.

Finish; In this case, little material is removed with great precision, to achieve a final process in which the aim is to achieve a surface finish that adapts to the different surfaces of the piece. It is used to have a surface with little roughness and a low feed speed and high cutting speeds are used.

Grinded or super finished; In this case we are talking about some precision machining by chip removal that is used to achieve a good surface finish and very precise measurements of the pieces.

The types of precision machining The most common chip removal methods are filing, sawing, drilling, broaching, threading, mortising, twisting and milling.

Conventional and non-conventional precision machining

Within chip removal we can also differentiate between traditional and non-traditional precision machining:

Non-traditional chip removal machining; We can find electrochemical machining; in which the excess material of the piece is eliminated through a de-galvanoplastic process, machining by electro-erosion or electrical discharge, which generates an electric arc between the piece and the electrode, in a dielectric medium to remove the excess material from the piece until obtaining the shapes of the electrode or laser machining, which uses a laser to melt, heat or vaporize the material.

Traditional chip removal machining is through turning, using a lathe to rotate the piece and eliminate the excess and generate a cylindrical shape and cutting by advancing slowly and parallel to the axis of rotation of the piece. Also milling, to cut the material, creating a straight surface and a trunk movement that is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutter; Drilling, through a drill, circular holes are made in the piece that performs the cutting movement in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation, to create the hole; Sawing, using a saw blade, creates a narrow slit inside the piece that is separated or not into two parts, creating the surplus in the roughing.

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