When we talk about the Cutting force, we refer to the necessary force that we have to exert to cut and profile a piece of CNC machining. This force also intervenes in fundamental aspects to obtain an optimal result in the CNC machining, such as the increase in temperature of the part and the tool, as well as tool wear, the surface and dimensional quality of the part, the tightenings used for clamping and tooling, etc.

The interaction between the part, the tool and the chip resulting from the CNC machining, is equivalent to a whole series of pressures on the tool, in this way, the system of cutting forces, friction and the pressure exerted on the piece, allows us to calculate the energy necessary to machine the piece depending on its material. This energy is known as specific cutting energy, which translates into the energy we need to remove a specific unit of the volume of the piece. But it is not only useful for us to know the power we need in the machine tool, but it also allows us to know the manufacturing speed and the thickness of the chip. The lower the cutting speed, the higher the cutting energy. By increasing the speed we manage to reach a stable value that remains constant piece after piece.

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friction forces

In all operations CNC machining In addition to the cutting force, the friction force intervenes, although this does not behave as it should in other processes and is due to the metallic surface of the piece. The metal surfaces of the parts in normal condition contain a layer of oxide that covers the metal atoms; this layer protects the material from possible subsequent oxidation. When we cut and profile these pieces, the pressure exerted is low due to this layer of oxide, resulting in weak contact between the piece and the tool, a factor to take into account when we want to make a CNC machining of these characteristics. On the contrary, when the contact between the two surfaces is rough, such as welded parts, the pressure is somewhat higher and therefore the friction force is also higher. When these factors are not taken into account, the friction force can become total, making it difficult to work and slide the piece.

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